MASAC Document #220
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The following recommendation was approved by the Medical and Scientific Advisory Council (MASAC) on October 5, 2013, and adopted by the NHF Board of Directors on October 6, 2013.
Prophylaxis (regular administration of Factor VIII or Factor IX concentrate to prevent bleeds) is considered optimal therapy for patients with severe hemophilia. Patients with hemophilia who develop inhibitory antibodies (inhibitors) to factor VIII (FVIII) or factor IX (FIX) may no longer respond to FVIII or FIX concentrates. Immune tolerance Induction (ITI) may help restore clinical response to clotting factor in some of these patients. However, in hemophilia patients with high titer inhibitors who are on ITI, have not yet begun ITI, or have failed ITI, retrospective and prospective evidence is accumulating that secondary prophylaxis with bypassing agents [activated prothrombin complex concentrate (FEIBA NF) and recombinant FVIIa (NovoSeven)] reduces joint and other bleeding episodes.
Three randomized clinical trials in the USA and abroad [1-3] using these bypassing agents showed significant reduction in bleeding episodes in joints and other tissues as well as prevention of development of new target joints. Other benefits were an improvement in quality of life and reduced hospitalizations and days missed from school /work [1, 3]. There were no thromboembolic events. One subject developed an allergic response to FEIBA and one to FEIBA NF [2, 3].
The doses used in the 3 clinical trials were as follows:
Hemophilia A and B: rFVIIa (NovoSeven) prophylaxis, 90μg/kg or 270µg/kg once daily. Note that there was no statistically significant difference in bleeding episodes between the 2 doses.
Hemophilia A: Factor Eight Inhibitor Bypassing Activity (FEIBA) prophylaxis, 85 + 15 units/kg on 3 non-consecutive days a week.
Hemophilia A and B: Factor Eight Inhibitor Bypassing Activity (FEIBA NF) prophylaxis, 85 + 15 units/kg every other day.
All of these doses were shown to be effective and safe and likely to show long term benefits for preserving joint function, improving quality of life, and preventing premature death from life-threatening bleeds such as spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage.
In light of these studies, MASAC recommends that prophylaxis with bypassing agents should be considered in patients with inhibitors. There are no clear-cut guidelines as to when to stop prophylaxis. Joint bleeds with subsequent joint destruction are a lifelong problem for these individuals. Therefore, they may continue to benefit from prophylaxis throughout their life. MASAC encourages further surveillance and research on this topic.
1. Antunes SV, Tangada S, Stasyshyn O, Mamonov V, Phillips J, Guzman-Becerra N,
Grigorian A, Ewenstein B, Wong WY. Randomized comparison of prophylaxis and on-demand
regimens with FEIBA NF in the treatment of haemophilia A and B with inhibitors.
Haemophilia 2013 Aug 1. doi: 10.1111/hae.12246. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23910578.
2. Leissinger C, Gringeri A, Antmen B, Berntorp E, Biasoli C, Carpenter S, Cortesi P,
Jo H, Kavakli K, Lassila R, Morfini M, Négrier C, Rocino A, Schramm W, Serban M, Uscatescu MV,
Windyga J, Zülfikar B, Mantovani L. Anti-inhibitor coagulant complex prophylaxis in
hemophilia with inhibitors. N Engl J Med. 2011 Nov 3; 365(18): 1684-92.
3. Konkle BA, Ebbesen LS, Erhardtsen E, Bianco RP, Lissitchkov T, Rusen L,
Serban MA. Randomized, prospective clinical trial of recombinant factor VIIa for
secondary prophylaxis in hemophilia patients with inhibitors. J Thromb Haemost. 2007 Sep; 5(9): 1904-13.
This material is provided for your general information only. NHF does not give medical advice or engage in the practice of medicine. NHF under no circumstances recommends particular treatment for specific individuals and in all cases recommends that you consult your physician or local treatment center before pursuing any course of treatment.
Copyright 2013 National Hemophilia Foundation. To facilitate the dissemination of these medical recommendations, reproduction of any material in this publication in whole or in part will be permitted provided: 1) a specific reference to the MASAC recommendation number and title is included and 2) the reproduction is not intended for use in connection with the marketing, sale or promotion of any product or service. NHF reserves the right to make the final determination of compliance with this policy. For questions or to obtain a copy of the most recent recommendations, please contact the NHF Director of Communications at 1-800-42-HANDI or visit the NHF website at www.hemophilia.org.